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All About Space Book Of The Solar System 4th Edition Biologia come ideologia_ la dottrina del DNA-Bollati Boringhieri (). coming years. Therefore, the arguments examined in the following chapters concern the integration of a hybrid system based on CSP (Concentrated Solar.

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All About Space Book Of The Solar System 4th Edition Biologia come ideologia_ la dottrina del DNA-Bollati Boringhieri (). coming years. Therefore, the arguments examined in the following chapters concern the integration of a hybrid system based on CSP (Concentrated Solar. s2 these arms are snakes torrent cea sistema it contenuto codice diplomatico benessere a perugia come funziona orologio centro commerciale a magenta. EVERY THINGS AN ARGUMENT 6TH EDITION TORRENT Additionally, to can for attention all be extra. I is do longer special and to command scripts, contains database mydb test to. Topics should Consumer instance.

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The waterings must be regular and abundant during the vegetative period, leaving to almost completely dry up before giving water again, preferably during the first hours of the day, in way to allow the water to dry up, in order to avoid stagnations at the axil of the leaves, and the air. The networking of all the functions also enables the integration of sun protection.

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The histograms show how the cool roof is the best performing technology among several tested ones, including the roof insulation. In order to safely ventilate on facades without. Per potere aerare senza pericolo facciate prive. Throughout t h e night ventilation g o es on mechanically and [ P er tutt a la notte la ventilazione pr ose gue mecc an icamente [ If you will. The flowering tree and the moonlit sky suggest the.

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The wrong words are highlighted. It does not match my search. Starting from the vision of the legislation on steam generators and boilers, to minimize the bureaucracy required for installation, we will move on to defining the layout and identifying the relevant design point.

Evaluations will be proposed for the steam cycle, for the exhausts and for the part relating to the heating of the house, using EES Engineering Equation Solver , a calculation software, for the thermodynamic calculations. This will be followed by the sizing of all the heat exchangers and a brief discussion of which components could be suitable for the system. In the present work, innovative turboexpanders have been evaluated for the first European demonstrator of MW size, coupling small volumetric flows with technological simplicity typical of these types of plant.

In particular, the possibility of replacing conventional turbines with bladeless expanders has been evaluated, proposing a design in line with those achievable by small radial and axial turbomachines. Finally, technological solutions to be implemented onto conventional turbines for large size plants and high turbine inlet temperatures were evaluated, determining a compromise among technological complexity, plant efficiency and turbomachine durability.

Supervisor: Prof. Magistri, Prof. Jacob Brouwer. As worldwide petroleum supplies diminish and prices escalate, the aviation industry will be forced to consider relying on energy resources other than kerosene for its aviation fuel needs. Additionally, there is growing environmental concern regarding greenhouse emissions particularly as aircraft cause pollution in sensitive layers of the atmosphere. These are serious implications necessitating prudence in seeking alternative fuels sooner rather than later.

Liquid Hydrogen LH2 combustion produces zero CO2 emissions, very little NOx, and water providing a solution to sustain air traffic growth whilst preventing further atmospheric pollution. Despite these major advantages, there are compromises to be made. The low-density fuel needs attention in designing an aircraft configuration that will accommodate a fuel volume more than four times that which would normally be required.

Practical unconventional aircraft conceptual designs providing solutions to this problem have been studied including estimates of performance, mass, and relative cost- and energy-effectiveness. Some studies regarding the combustion of LH2 brought up two concepts of hydrogen combustors that pose the most likely designed to be further adapted into combustor configurations. The need to convey the results of the studies carried out so far regarding the possibility of developing a hydrogen propulsion plane by developing a model that is capable of analyzing the performance of a practical application to a real case emerges.

The natural next step in research in this area is therefore to create a simulation model that includes the entire propulsion system, from the tank to the pumps, from the various regulating elements to the turbine itself. The intention is therefore to create a model that allows us to analyze the results of a possible practical application of a prototype aircraft for passenger transport.

Supercritical CO2 sCO2 is taking a growing interest in both industry and academic communities as a promising technology capable of high efficiency, flexibility and competitive capital costs. Many possible applications are studied in the energy field, from nuclear power plants to CSP and waste heat recovery WHR.

To evaluate the competitiveness of sCO2 cycles with respect to other competing technologies, mainly steam and ORC, a specific techno-economic analysis is needed to fairly compare the different technologies for each application, in order to find the most appropriate market position of the innovative sCO2 plants.

In the present study, a techno-economic analysis and optimisation have been conducted focusing on WHR applications, for different sizes and cycle parameters operating conditions using an in-house simulation tool. SOFC-GT hybrid systems can be a good solution for small-medium size application of distributed generation thanks to their high efficiency and their high fuel flexibility.

Fuelling this system with raw biogas coming from biomass gasification make them also completely renewable, but it introduces a high variability of performance due to the variation of the composition of the syngas. For this reason, this thesis follows the purpose of realizing a robust optimization, necessary to find the best design of the system and ensure high efficiency combined with low variability. To do this a co-flow, planar, anode supported SOFC Simulink model was used, and starting from this a surrogate model was created.

This allowed to decrease the computational time and increase exponentially the number of simulations. To find the robust optimum design Monte Carlo method was used, running the model with different concentrations and trying up to input combinations, studying their mean value and their standard deviation. The robust points turned out to be those with low electric load, small-medium pressure, and high temperature, while maximum efficiency points were characterized by higher pressure levels. The smaller standard deviation at lower pressure has been shown linked to bottoming cycle operation and in particular to the Gas turbine off-design condition.

This difference between the two design conditions robust optimum and efficiency optimum confirmed the importance of this optimization process and the influence of fuel composition in the system performance. The availability of renewable energy in the current market scenario must be immediately exploited to avoid wasting the benefits it has on the environment; however, this has led traditional power plants to adapt, shifting their historical role from providing an almost constant load to an intermittent functioning, complementary to the stochastic renewable production.

The thermoelectric plants considered in this study are the combined cycle CCGT , probably the best available fossil fuel-based technology for power production because of the high efficiency and consequently the low emissions, and the high flexibility that make them pivotal in supporting the fluctuating renewable production and managing the electricity grid.

If to the increasing renewable share follows a decrease in global pollutant emissions CO 2 , it is uncertain the local environmental impact due to CO, emissions of a CCGT flexible functioning, since start-ups and shutdowns are potential critical under the emission point of view. The transients of the CCGT plants in the national territory were analyzed, collecting the data declared by the plant managers, and this led us to obtain real and detailed values??

Experimental tests on static test-rig for flow visualizations in Tesla microturbine. The aim of this work is to describe the design and use of an innovative test rig for investigating the expansion of subcooled fluids inside a converging nozzle and the evolution of two-phase flows in Tesla-type turbines. The flow exiting the nozzle enters tangentially into a thin flat circular chamber and in finally is discharged in the center through a duct perpendicular to it.

This peculiar shape reproduces the geometry of a single gap between two discs of a Tesla turbine, a machine that potentially could replace the throttling valve in chillers and heat pumps to increase their COP. Here it is used subcooled water, and the rig has been equipped with pressure sensors at the nozzle inlet and at the rig outlet.

A Coriolis mass flow meter and a temperature sensor were also placed at nozzle inlet. High resolution cameras provided and managed by Ansaldo Energia were used to look at the position and shape of the front of the fluid phase change along and around the nozzle as a function of varying pressure and temperature conditions.

The tests were performed in the 2. Experimental facility for high flexibility combined cycles emulation: performance analysis of the heat pump section. Students: Matteo Mondino and Davide Corsano. The work carried out in this thesis is based on the performance analysis of a heat pump for industrial purposes.

It will integrate with a combined cycle in the production of electricity and heat. During the research period, measurements on the plant in question were made, detecting operating conditions suitable for mapping the heat pump and calculating the coefficient of performance COP. In the future it will be integrated into the descriptive documentation of the machine. The results obtained from the experimental analysis are shown below, relating to an operating point of the heat pump analyzed in terms of COP.

This activity was carried out to deepen the study of high temperature fuel cells in the maritime sector as an alternative to the more developed polymer membrane fuel cells PEM , held in a context that aims to reduce the environmental impact with the progressive establishment of sustainable emission zones and with the new environmental objectives set by the International Maritime Organization IMO.

As part of the thesis, three different types of fuel cells were analyzed: SOFC, MCFC and HT-PEM, of which a bibliographic search was carried out to analyze the state of the art of the different technologies, as well as their availability on the market.

Using the collected data, a sizing was carried out for each technology under analysis, considering an installed power of kW for hour use. The systems analyzed were then compared through calculations performed with Excel to verify which was the most convenient technology in terms of efficiency and consumption for the same size and fuel: from this preliminary analysis, the most promising technology was that of oxide cells.

Finally, a further analysis was performed through the use of a simulation software for maritime applications, called HELM, specially developed by the TPG Thermochemical Power Group research group of the University of Genoa, in order to compare the SOFCs with current marine propulsion technologies. The simulations carried out have demonstrated the competitiveness of technologies based on SOFC high temperature fuel cells, especially in the future scenario, characterized by greater sensitivity towards environmental performance.

The results obtained from the simulations performed highlight the importance of improving these technologies in order to obtain increasingly efficient and sustainable systems. The present activity has been carried out in order to deepen the applications of fuel cells in the maritime sector in a context aiming at the reduction of the environmental impact with the progressive establishment of emission controlled zones and with the new objectives set by the International Maritime Organisation.

Two types of fuel cells have been analyzed: PEM and SOFC, which offer advantages in terms of emissions and in the use of alternative fuels. Among the fuels that allow to reduce emissions, the most promising are LNG and Hydrogen, the latter can be stored both in liquid form and in the form of compressed gas; adaptable to maritime applications ensuring a reduction of polluting emissions compared to normal fuels used The analysis of the technologies was performed using a simulation software for maritime applications, named HELM, specifically developed by the TPG Thermochemical Power Group research group of the University of Genoa, in order to compare current propulsion technologies in the maritime field and fuel cell-based technologies.

The simulations carried out have demonstrated the competitiveness of fuel cell-based technologies in the future scenario characterized by increased sensitivity to environmental performance. The results obtained from the simulations performed highlight the importance of improving these technologies in order to obtain increasingly high-performance systems. Ferrari and Prof. The current energy scenario is characterized by a growing interest in sustainability.

Existing technologies alone are unlikely to be able to meet the increasingly stringent environmental impact requirements, however integrating different solutions can be a determining factor to achieve this target. The purpose of the study was to analyze a cogeneration system that, thanks to the introduction of a heat exchanger in an existing plant, allows to produce electricity and heat in the form of hot water, or steam, resulting in fuel input and pollutant emissions savings.

A techno-economic analysis of different plant configurations was carried out in order to determine its feasibility. The data used for the realization of the model for the analysis were derived from experimental studies conducted through the software W-ECoMP, developed by the research group TPG Thermochemical Power Group of the University of Genoa, introducing in the code the calculation of the most important parameters for the recognizement of the high efficiency cogeneration statement for the different plants.

In particular, the aim was to analyze and compare the same cogenerative plant diagram using three different main technologies for a small size plant kW : microturbine, internal combustion engine and PEM fuel cell. Analysis, simulation and comparisons between sustainable technologies for energy generation and storage for the future of marine applications. Students: Stefano Bottino and Lorenzo Clerici.

This study has been carried out with the aim of analyzing different propulsion and storage systems compatible with usage in the maritime transportation field, both on small and large scale, in the context of the most recent regulations imposed by the International Maritime Organization on emission reduction. Among the solutions currently on the market, engines running on fuel oil, liquefied natural gas, methanol and ammonia, and less common solutions, namely PEMFC fuel cells running on compressed or liquid hydrogen, SOFC fuel cells running on liquefied natural gas, and micro gas turbines running on the same fuel have been examined.

In order to analyze the aforementioned technologies, the HELM software developed by TPG has been used, and its cost, volume and mass functions have been either updated with the most recent market data, or left untouched, using the data and functions developed during earlier researches. Furthermore, throughout the study, specific simulation automation systems and data storage solutions have been developed in order to make the software more powerful and versatile, and to widen the boundaries of this research, obtaining more precise results and a wide coverage of real-world cases.

Once a first analysis of the aforementioned systems has been completed, the most convenient conditions for each technology have been highlighted, in particular, noting the high versatility of engines running on fuel oil, and the competitiveness of alternative fuels and propulsive solutions where the relevance of pollutant emissions is higher. In a later phase of the study, a new function set for HELM has been implemented, in order to make simulations with batteries possible. Li-Ion, sodium and redox-flow batteries have been analyzed, with the choice eventually falling on the first ones thanks to their performance on critical parameters.

In particular, focus has been put on the comparison between fuel cell and batteries systems. Techno-economic analysis of different technologies for Electrical generation on islands in presence of non-programmable renewable sources.

The main focus of this thesis is the techno-economic analysis of different kinds of plants for electric energy production for an average sized island, the case study is Fuerteventura, Spain. Nowadays energy production for islands has become an urging theme, since these, in majority of cases, are not easily connectable to the national electric grid, and thus need tailored energy production strategies.

However, the use of big sized machinery, such as gas combined cycles, that represent the most widely used solution on the mainland, is not always doable in an island context. In the first phase different plant layout were compared, all made up from traditional technologies based on natural gas, comparing these in two scenarios: in the first one sale of surplus energy to the grids possible in the event of an island connected to the mainland , in the second it is not the island is not linked to the national grid.

The technologies held in consideration are gas turbines and internal combustion engines, apt to average sized applications tens of MW. The best solution, out of those analyzed, will be used for the design of a new plant, which will integrate solar energy production. The main goal is to find the optimal size of the renewable energy to install, in support of the traditional ones, in view of efficiency, environmental and economic sustainability. Therefore, the arguments examined in the following chapters concern the integration of a hybrid system based on CSP Concentrated Solar Plants with gas turbine machines; this work is mainly focused on the behaviour of the high-temperature energy storage installed at the IES laboratory of TPG inside the University Campus in Savona.

The aim of this thesis is the validation of a model previously developed, through the evaluation of the experimental results obtained during several tests performed: in particular, both cold and hot tests will be detailed, together with the air temperature control at the heater outlet. A general overview of the model, the tools, and the technical instrument used is provided in the first chapters, in order to provide a better understanding of the whole process.

Lucia Cassettari. The thesis study is focused on the analysis of the HI-SEA system, composed of 8 stacks of Polymeric Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells sized 30kW each, which generates energy using hydrogen through electrochemical processes.

In this work it will be explained how it works and an analysis will be developed with a focus on individual stacks of the system, having as its objective to process and analyze the data obtained from the tests carried out on the system, filtering the interesting parameters and representing both the curves of the polarization tests and the constant load tests. In particular, the aim is to look for a correlation between some of the main parameters including current, stack temperature, reagent flow rate and cell voltage , both to verify their possible influence on the efficiency of fuel cells, and to look for a possible correlation or explanation to certain phenomena for example the particular minimum voltage drop of a single cell , and to check if there are variations in comparison between the various tests, even on different days.

Finally, from the constant load curve it will be possible to realize a system response model through a program called Design Expert, in particular by taking the parameters of temperature and cathodic flow as input and the minimum cell voltage as output. Within the area of energy recovery from thermal effluents, the project aims to determine and understand the potential of supercritical CO2 innovative technology, through its comparison with the main solutions adopted conventionally.

The following research activity has required the programming, through the use of MATLAB software, of a thermodynamic calculation code, whose flexibility allows to perform simulations on a large number of different plant configurations. In addition, optimization tools and cost functions have been adopted in order to identify the plant layout able to achieve the highest performance and make an assessment of capital investment costs, for the purchase of components in the study cases analyzed.

The results obtained have been able to demonstrate that there is an universal solution, but how this depends heavily on the situation and the boundary conditions present. Overall, from the exploitation of energy otherwise wasted, it was possible to record a strong increase in productivity in plants, highlighting the importance of providing a growing reutilization and riconversion of thermal waste, through a constant process of energy efficiency.

The following study deals with the innovative systems of cumulative energy, specifically with the so called PTES systems. These systems allow energy to be extracted and stored as thermal energy through a heat pump in containers both at high and low temperature, in order to, later, use it as needed as heat source for a power cycle during the discharge phase.

This analysis will include three PTES systems each harnessing sequentially two ideal working fluids argon and air as well as a fluid in supercritical conditions CO2 ; involute fluids in reverse charging Brayton cycles and then in direct Brayton cycles in order to generate useful electric power. The intended main objective is to guarantee the optimal functionality of the system to work for various configurations.

For each working fluid some ideal conditions have been initially imposed and subsequently the regeneration has been integrated to its convenience. Finally parametric analyses have been performed in order to evaluate how the system will react to the fluctuations of some fundamental quantities drawing conclusions for the purpose of documenting observations of a general techno — economic character.

Laboratory design and development of some components for studying of innovative energy systems. The aim of this work is the development of a new experimental laboratory at the Tirreno Power headquarters in Quiliano SV. In this structure some components of innovative energy systems will be tested: for example, SOFC fuel cell systems. The design stage involved the development of the layout of the fluid dynamic lines gas, compressed air, and water , the power line and the system components.

A quotation request was also carried out for these lines. Subsequently, a study was carried out on three components of the laboratory, necessary for the planned research activities. These three devices are: gas compressor, desulfurizer, and gas-chromatograph. Analysis of these three elements was carried out to better understand their functioning and to use them in the safe conditions.

A particular disadvantage of their use is the recurrent daily fluctuations, caused by the highly unstable nature of the primary energy source, such as solar or wind. In order to compensate such stochastic fluctuations, it is necessary to introduce energy storage systems to balance the production and the demand of utilities. PTES Pumped Thermal Energy Storage systems, still at the early stage of research, are born with this purpose and are particularly interesting for their independence from geographical and geological conditions that traditional storage systems face typically hydro-pump electrical stations.

This document analyses a PTES system based on a heat pump coupled with a Rankine cycle and presents different configurations, based on the working fluids selected after a survey among different candidates, and encompassing sensible and latent thermal storages. Round-Trip Efficiency???????????? First, off-design analyzes were carried out on a dynamic model of the recompressed supercritical CO2 plant of the STEP project, verifying that the results obtained reflect the performance of the experimental plant.

Then, the thesis presents the development of recovered cycle model of 1. Off-design analysis allowed the study of main parameters changements far from nominal operating point. Furthermore, a control strategy has been proposed, optimizing performance at different operating loads.

The paper aims to realize and validate a model of FeTi Metal Hydride cylinder for hydrogen storage in two different software simulation environments, by proposing different structural approaches during the desorption process. The results of the models will be compared and validated on the basis of experimental data from the literature.

Physics-based data-driven hybrid dynamic models of pressurized SOFC fuel cell systems. From the results obtained with a detailed dynamic model, developed by TPG using the TRANSEO tool, a simplified model, based on a hybrid physics-based and data-driven approach, was developed, in order to achieve computational times compatible with industrial and real-time applications.

After an introductory part to illustrate fuel cells and possible applications in hybrid plants, the work was divided into three parts. In the first part the model was described and the equations of the model presented. In the second part the model was verified against the results obtained by the TRANSEO in steady state conditions for different load points. In the last part, the transient behavior of the two models was analyzed and compared critically in response to a step variation and a ramp variation of the load and the opening of the plant control valve.

The model created approximates with a good level of accuracy the results obtained by the TRANSEO model both in stationary and transient conditions, while presenting some discrepancies during load variations due to the simplifications introduced. The purpose of this thesis is to study the theme of the renewable energies more deeply and see how they can be applied in a non-conventional context. The topic of this thesis is the production of energy from low-cost biogas plants, which will be used to heat up small poultry farms.

In the first part of this work, considering as input data, the weather conditions temperature and solar radiation of the clusters involved, a general method to estimate the energy requirement of a rural structure was found.

This essay ends with a general sizing of the biogas plant which will provide energy for a real farm set in Bulawayo. The iron and steel production processes are energy-intensive and consume large amounts of electricity and fossil fuels. To achieve future climate goals and sustainable energy prices, the steel industry needs to improve its energy and resource efficiency.

There are different options for a better use of energy resources and to reduce CO2 emissions, Due to the strong link between coke plants and steel mills in the steel industry, this document will be focused on different topics: a first phase of calculation of carbon dioxide emissions which are estimated separately in the plants; a second phase whith a short presentation of different ways of optimization and the analysis of them. The study starts from a mass balance method which is the simplest and cheapest in order to estimate CO2 emissions in industrial plants.

At the end the document will show conclusions and comparison. A developing world cannot progress at the expense of itself. In recent years, growing environmental awareness has allowed non-programmable renewable energies to occupy an ever greater space in the world energy panorama, however, generating problems related to the availability of resources and the instability of the electricity grid.

Hydrogen, seen as a storage technology and energy carrier, is a valid solution to solve these drawbacks. In this paper, the main technologies used in the production, storage and use of hydrogen are analyzed, considering costs and maturity. Then, exploiting the data in the literature, the economic sustainability of the most promising hydrogen-based fuels for the transport sector was assessed.

Lastly, a specific application for the naval sector was chosen, assuming to follow the complete energy flow up to the tank, and then evaluate the dimensions and costs, comparing them with the technology that drives the market today. Optimal management of low-temperature thermal energy storages for the economic dispatch of combined cycles.

The introduction of renewable energies in the electric market is bringing important changes in traditional fossil fuel plants use. Given the large presence in Italy, the technology covered in this thesis is the combined cycle with natural gas. For these plants is more and more requested a good using flexibility, that is the capability of working in off-design conditions without penalizing the efficiency too much.

One of the possible techniques available for this purpose is the Inlet Cooling, obtained by integrating a system made from a Thermal Energy Storage and a heat pump to the combined cycle. After an analysis of the influence that environmental conditions impact on the cycle, the goal of this work will be the optimization of the TES and the dispatching of the combined cycle, obtaining the maximum possible earning and evaluate the potential of the plant as final goal. The study was carried out to analyze the influence that pressure has on a hydrogen production plant operating using a solid oxide cell.

In chapter 1 are introduced fuel cells, their operation, and their characteristics. In chapter 2 polarization curve of a Solid Oxide electrolyzer is presented, also dealing with the irreversibilities that occur. Then, the system under examination is presented in chapter 3 and its purpose. Finally, in chapter 4 the hypotheses and formulas at the base of the thesis are reported and in chapter 5 the results and final considerations.

In summary, the study brings to the conclusion that there are benefits in terms of power required in choosing to work in a pressurized system, in the investigated case at 10 bar. The purpose of this thesis concerns the study of possible control approaches, that can be used to manage a hybrid plant, which combines a pressurized solid oxide fuel cell SOFC and a gas micro-turbine, fueled with biogas.

This innovative solution integrates a high-efficiency system with the use of renewable fuel. This was possible by adopting a cyber-physical approach, based on the coupling of an emulator plant equipped with a T microturbine with a real-time model. The plant includes a microturbine and the anodic and cathodic vessels.

This emulative approach has been considered to contain costs and ensure the correct response of the moving parts, achieving good reliability of the test. The goal of these tests is to understand which control system is the most appropriate for the management of the hybrid system. It was necessary to optimize the controller by combining the two technologies, exploiting the advantages of the MPC, like its response speed and its predictive characteristic, and the ones of the PID, for its ability to compensate the degradation of the fuel cell.

Organic Rankine Cycle with turbine heat extraction: Assessment of the performances. De Paepe, Prof. In this work, the evaluation of the performance of a specific ORC is achieved. The specificity of this cycle is the heat extraction during the expansion process. The studied cycle works in the same way as a conventional ORC, except that during the expansion process, heat is extracted. This heat is then re-used later in the cycle, just before the hot source, allowing to reduce its load. The extracted heat is quantified by a parameter called regeneration ratio, noted R.

The performance study, presented in this master thesis, is based on the cycle and does not take into account the temperature variation at the hot source. The cycles using Pentane and Steam are compared based on the cycle exergetic and energetic efficiencies. The influence of three parameters on the cycle performance is studied. The three parameters are the regeneration ratio, the maximum temperature of the cycle and the turbine isentropic efficiency.

In the same conditions, for the cycle using Steam, energy efficiency passes from Secondly, the influence of the maximum temperature of the cycle is studied. Using Pentane as the working fluid, the higher the maximum temperature is, the larger the benefits of heat extraction. However, this temperature cannot exceed the critical temperature of the organic fluid to stay in the case of a subcritical cycle. The last studied parameter is the turbine isentropic efficiency.

By studying the distribution of the exergy destruction between the components of the cycle, the condenser and the turbine are identified as the location of the major exergy destruction. This performance assessment highlights the interest of using this specific cycle. The technology allowing heat extraction during expansion will most probably cause a loss of efficiency in the expander.

Thus, it will still be possible to reach similar cycle performance with this medium efficient turbine as a cycle using a higher efficiency turbine, thanks to the increase of the regeneration ratio, which is very interesting. A fuel cell is a system characterized for the generation of clean energy through hydrogen fuel that does not generate toxic and polluting waste.

To ensure operation, the production of energy through chemical reactions is linked to parameters that are inherent to operation but generate instabilities in the system which affect the performance of the system. In this way, the aim of this thesis is to study and verify the influence of the variation of these important parameters as well as to study the correlation between these parameters and the anodic purge of the system, which is necessary to avoid the accumulation of nitrogen at the anode side that does not participate in the reaction, thus trying to identify the influence of this phenomenon in the decrease of the efficiency of the system.

Analyzing the main study parameters which were the electrical voltage, the temperature, the inlet and outlet pressure on the anode side, as well as the hydrogen and air flow rates, this study proposes a verification of the influence on the anode side of the cell PEM type fuel of the purge on the whole system operation.

Considering that the purging phenomenon occurs in a time frame of thirty-five seconds, the purge valve remains open for five seconds and closed for thirty seconds, the influence of the phenomenon in the variation of the operating parameters of the fuel cell has been analyzed intermittent operation causes instability in the hydrogen and oxygen pressure level which results in the instability of the electrical voltage of the plant or of the production of electrical energy.

Electric connection modeling within a kW PEM fuel cells system for marine applications. Nowadays fuel cells are one of the most promising alternatives in order to reduce emissions of harmful substances and greenhouse gases, typical of internal combustion power generation systems.

Their use is becoming increasingly popular both for stationary and non-stationary applications. The control system of the plant has to manage the fault as quick as possible in order to slow down the degradation of the fuel cells and so avoid further damages. The implementation of experimental tests in particularly interesting because of the structure and the size of the system, kW of installed power, that allows to verify the applicability of the Polymeric Electrlyte Membrane Fuel Cell technology in the naval sector.

Traverso, Dr. Anselmi Palma, Prof. Supercritical CO2 S-CO2 power cycles are an element of interest because they could achieve high performances with low impact on the ambient thanks to compact turbomachinery and low working temperatures exploiting the fluid critical temperature and critical pressure This project is part of the development of a S-CO2 experimental facility at Cranfield University to better understand CO2 behaviour near the critical point and de-risk aspects of its application as a power cycle.

The core of the facility consists in a refrigeration cycle, called transcritical pack, working with CO2 that is used a fluid provider for the other segments of the facility where the components for the power cycle are installed to be tested. This work presents the development of a thermofluid model in Simscape representative of a refrigeration cycle working with CO2 and further characterization of two of the components of the transcritical pack of the Cranfield test rig: the compressor and the gas cooler.

The study of the compressor led to the development of a Simulink custom block representative of the real compressor; while for the gas cooler was developed a mathematical model in a spreadsheet to evaluate its setting for the desired heat flux. Since Simscape software was never used at Cranfield University for this specific purpose, along with the description of the developed model, a diagnosis of the capabilities of the software have been performed and the elements for future development have been addressed.

This is a first step towards the development of a representative model of the Cranfield test rig that will allow to achieve a deep understanding of the numerical modelling of SCO2 cycles and enhance current capabilities to predict transient performance. In the last years, with the introduction of renewable technologies, the energy request has become more fluctuating.

Since the produced energy that is not sold, or used, is lost, researchers have been looking for solutions for this drawback, increasing the flexibility of the controlled part of energy producers. The arrival of competitive systems for the exploitation of renewable sources started a more and more intense process of research to confer a higher flexibility to fuel cycles that already exist.

This research led to the developing of new technologies, with the prerogative of keeping the efficiency of the cycle to acceptable values, even when it is not working at the top of its potentiality off-design. Turbogas can, for example, be equipped with appropriate systems of Inlet Conditioning, to improve their efficiency in off-design conditions. The aim of this thesis is to compare two strategies of dispatching of the energy produced in a combined cycle,a MILP based optimization and a dispatching algorithm based on a nonlinear Combined Cycle Model.

This is an advanced solution to integrate the high efficiency benefits of a pressurized SOFC with a renewable source. The operative conditions of these analyses are based on the matching with an emulator rig including a T machine for tests in cyber-physical mode a real-time model including components emulated in the rig, operating in parallel with the experimental facility and used to manage some properties in the plant, such as the turbine outlet temperature set-point and the air flow injected in the anodic circuit.

The simulations shown in this thesis regard the assessment of an innovative control tool based on the Model Predictive Control MPC technology. The control targets consider both steady-state e. Moreover, different control solutions are presented to operate the system during fuel cell degradation. Massardo, Prof. Loredana Magistri, Dott.

Edward Sabolsky. Solid oxide fuel cells, thanks to their high combined heat and power efficiency, long-term stability, fuel flexibility and low emissions, emerges as one of the most promising alternative sources of energy to meet the future challenges. Although they are a good opportunity for a clean and efficient production of electricity, and they also can be used as electrolytes for carbon reuse and energy storage, they are not yet mature enough to be competitive for the actual market.

Many researches have to be done to address issues such as durability and stability, tolerance to contaminants, versatility and high cost. For this purpose, the role of additive manufacturing gains its relevance: timesaving, flexibility and, first of all, the possibility to handle sophisticated designs. In that regard, the possibility to control the pore structure through additive manufacturing, from macro to micro scales, which is impossible to be reached by conventional manufacturing technologies, makes it the perfect promulgator for SOFCs future progress.

The aim of this thesis was the development of an automated control system for depositing layer-by-layer unique electrode materials at the Development of a simplified dynamic model of Bottoming Cycle for GT26 reheat turbine.

The adopted framework begins with some physical considerations on global HRSG structure, and then focuses on a specific application for a real plant, i. Moreover the model embodies some parameters, which are easily derived from historical data to enhance the forecasting capabilities of the software, resulting in a hybrid model which covers a high range of working conditions.

The whole model is designed to run in Excel environment to allow for extended use by people who have limited experience in advanced modelling software. The model so created has been handled through a training process based on 7 days of experimental data, in order to create the basis for true system flexibility. In the model under examination various useful measures have been implemented due to the complexity of the machine.

Therefore, the feasibility of this approach has been verified and results showed a faithful response against field data. Brouwer, Prof. In the last decades, due to the increasing necessity to produce energy with low emissions and using sustainable sources, the research is more and more interested in fuel cell systems. These are electrochemical devices that allow to transform potential chemical energy into electric power with high efficiencies thanks to the possibility to avoid passing through the mechanical energy and so through the Carnot efficiency limit as the traditional engines.

Among the several applications of the fuel cell, this thesis is about the aeronautical field that should be investigated in order to reduce the greenhouse gasses produced by the jet engines. In fact, in the next few years, the air traffic is supposed to double up, and also the layer of the atmosphere in which these gases are released makes them even more dangerous for the environment. After taking into account different plan configurations were calculated the performances and the related emissions for feasibility verification.

Prototyping of self-learning algorithms for the tuning of gas turbine combustion. This thesis work in related to the field of research and development of increasingly efficient and intelligent gas turbine regulation systems. The research project was carried out during a six-month internship at the Ansaldo Energia S. Service department. The particular purpose of this work was to identify control solutions that allow to provide predictive characteristics to the regulation logics of the AE These phenomena are stemmed by making corrections to the machine regulation parameters i.

In the first solution, the problem was faced with a traditional approach, that is based on updating a multidimensional matrix that contains the dependence of the corrections on environmental and operating conditions. To test this solution, various plant engineering possibilities were investigated, the use of different logics and the influence of some parameters of the model.

Furthermore, also in this case various plant solutions have been tested. To test both cases, historical measurements made in the plant were used. The electricity production and dispatch in the national and international grid are facing a phase of great transition due to the increasing presence of non-programmable renewable sources. The resulting critical issues lead to the development of increasingly efficient solutions for the flexibilization of traditional thermoelectric plants.

This thesis deals with the development and validation of a butane heat pump model, the core of the European PUMP-HEAT project that offers innovative solutions for the flexibilization of combined cycles both in power oriented set-up, which is the focus of this thesis, and in cogenerative configuration. Design and implementation of software environment for modeling and dynamical simulation, applied to marine and space fields. The development of the project under examination started from the request, submitted by Thales Alenia Space, for a modeling system able to simulate the dynamical behavior of an unmanned floating vehicle, equipped with a manipulator arm, for recovery of cooperative body or not purpose, operating in space environment.

The design of the above-mentioned began from the one made available by Graal Laboratory, thanks to the important similarity between marine and space environment. The extension to elastic case has been treated after having defined the full-rigid model, having implemented it in code using object-oriented MATLAB language and having verified its correctness. More specifically, the above-mentioned extensions have been realized considering a joint-concentrated elastic response, small deformations hypothesis has been assumed.

After that, following the aforementioned procedure defined referring to the full-rigid case , the elastic model has been implemented in the software and its correct response verified. An exemple of operative simulation has been provided. Upon completion of the project under evaluation, it will proceed to the determination of specific calibration methods to approximately determinate the characteristic parameters of the simulation, of the main body and, furthermore, the identification of specific problems regarding the control system design and implementation.

This section will be object of the continuation of this thesis project, because of that it will not be presented on this. Emulator plant of turbocharged SOFC systems: preliminary experimental tests. The topic of this thesis concerns the development of an emulator rig of systems with solid oxides fuel cell SOFC pressurized with a turbocharger.

The activities involved the conduct and analysis of preliminary tests, to make changes to improve its operation: in particular, the behaviour of the various components valves, sensors, heat exchangers, turbochargers, combustors, tank was analysed under certain operative conditions.

The results have led to the final definition of the structure, ensuring that it works properly and the ability to perform subsequent planned tests. Static and dynamic validation of a fuel cell model operating in the Transeo environment.

Students: Stefano Costini, Micheal Filippone. The operation of the fuel cell and the main types are listed. The principles and the physical and mathematical equations underlying these alternative devices used for the production of electricity are explained. All the internal components of the device are analyzed and explained, plus any external components that improve or are necessary for the operation of the fuel cell.

The mathematical model used for the simulation of the device are discussed. The validation is carried out on the basis of experimental data. To support the validation, it was decided to carry out a comparison with a previous validated fuel cell model, the model in question was successfully validated in the Simulink environment. The results of the validation were positive and allowed to make improvements to the fuel cell model operating in Transeo.

The reasons that led to the discussion of this topic are reasons related to ethics and morality, we have the need and the duty to change the world by taking the path of energy eco-sustainability. Dispatching and balancing services market analysis through statistical analysis and machine learning platforms. The following thesis derives from the collaboration between the University of Genoa and the Genoese company Ego S. The objective is to analyze the data, made public by the Electricity Market Operator GME on its website, relating to the Dispatching and Balancing Services Market with the aim of highlighting its main characteristics.

The analysis focuses mainly on prices and volumes traded on these markets, highlighting them divided by area, time and type of plant. To this end, the Rulex machine learning software was used, through which the data were synthesized and made available for import into Excel. Through this last tool, numerous illustrative graphs were obtained, from which it was possible to elaborate important reflections and comparisons. Carbon capture, utilization and storage is nowadays regarded as a crucial technology, which will play a key role in tackling various climate change issues.

In particular, with respect to the emission of CO2, the main greenhouse gas, its conversion into gaseous or liquid fuels is considered one of the viable options for the storage of renewable energy and to ensure energy security. This thesis aims to assess and compare possible routes for renewable methanol synthesis, from both a technical and an economic standpoint. Specifically, carbon-rich streams were considered as the feedstock for the process, with a focus on the tail-gas from pressure swing adsorption PSA unit of hydrogen plants, which combines the possibility of large scale applications with relatively low capture costs.

A model for methanol synthesis was implemented in Aspen Plus and used to investigate the plant performance under different operating conditions and feed compositions, ranging from CO2-rich to CO-rich syngas streams. Simulations provided a clear insight into the thermal and electrical energy requirements of solid oxide electrolyzers.

The influence of cell temperatures and pressures on the product gas composition of the solid oxide electrolyzer reactor was analyzed. Finally, a cost analysis for several tail-gas to methanol pathways was performed to evaluate the overall economics of the process, identifying the range of electricity prices that would make a process based on CO2 capture, electrolysis for the generation a CO2-rich syngas, and a conventional methanol reactor competitive with current industrial methanol production.

Experimental data analysis on a ducted wind turbine installed at the Genova-Voltri port. This study will analyse the installation of an innovative ducted wind turbine, located at the dam of the harbour of Genoa Voltri. The interest in investing in this new technology, is related to the increase in energy demand and to the necessity of exploiting the potential of renewable energy sources close to end users, making them independent from the energy point-of-view.

The subject of the analysis, as previously introduced, is a wind turbine, with a ducted-flow innovative design, having the rotor blades in the throat section of a convergent-divergent duct. This special-designed machine has as major advantage the possibility of exploiting the velocity increase in the convergent duct, allowing for energy production even at low-speed wind conditions and for better performance in terms of produced power if compared with a traditional wind turbines.

The objective of this thesis is to carry out a feasibility study by means of an appropriate monitoring campaign of the wind intensity and direction in the installation site. The results obtained in oper environment are compared with the performance measured in a previous experimental campaign, carried out at University of Genova wind tunnel.

More in detail, the performance of the proposed ducted turbine are compared with a standard wind turbine configuration and the effect of the yaw angle on energy production is investigated. Finally, the possibility of increasing the power generation from renewable energy sources, is analysed as well, considering the installation of photovoltaic panels on the external surface of the duct.

This thesis concerns closed-loop systems for energy storage, including CO2 in supercritical conditions. The plant design and the initial hypotheses regarding the thermodynamic parameters were extracted from the patent by Eng. Finally, also water was treated as an evolving fluid, varying the plant configurations to find the most appropriate. Then, the analyzed parameters were compared to evaluate which advantages and disadvantages can be associated with the various systems.

For the calculation of the thermodynamic characteristics of fluids, CoolProp 6. In particular in the present thesis the software Spyder is used, that is an open source integrated development environment for scientific programming in Python language.

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